Factorio https://www.factorio.com/ is the grandfather of factory simulation games, and it's centered around production chains, but the default play style is rather light in terms of supply chain (just create a factory that, if fed with raw materials for long enough, produces everything you need eventually). I recommend going for a train-based play style (especially against hostile aliens), as it tends to center a lot more around what you need to deliver, where, when, and in what quantities. The space exploration mod https://mods.factorio.com/mod/space-exploration is also great on those aspects.
Satisfactory https://www.satisfactorygame.com/ is also interesting for those who like more of a 3D feel.
My favorite is Dyson Sphere Program https://store.steampowered.com/app/1366540/Dyson_Sphere_Program/ as it forces you to set up interstellar supply chains: in Factorio and Satisfactory one tends to create a central base into which all raw inputs are fed, but in Dyson Sphere Program it's usually better to transport your intermediate goods to a planet with oceans of sulfuric acid that are needed for its processing, rather than shipping the sulfuric acid back to a central planet. Or, to move energy-hungry processing to a tidally-locked planet right next to the sun.
Transport Fever 2 https://www.transportfever2.com/ has excellent gameplay, with half of it being centered around industrial supply chains. The Industry Expanded mod is very good in this aspect https://steamcommunity.com/sharedfiles/filedetails/?id=1950013035 The Cities: Skylines game with the Industries expansion https://www.paradoxinteractive.com/games/cities-skylines/add-ons/cities-skylines-industries is also quite good in the same vein.
Banished https://store.steampowered.com/app/242920/Banished/ is also interesting in that you are expected to set up an entire medieval supply chain from scratch. It includes dealing with overfilled warehouses, random demand (weather for firewood, illness for medicine), investment (planting an orchard takes years to yield fruit), out-of-stock penalties (starvation, running out of tools which cuts productivity across the board), and so on.